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Effect of chondroitin sulfate,Jining chondroitin sulfate

         Chondroitin sulfate (CS, hereinafter referred to as CS) is a kind of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which exists in human and animal connective tissues. It is mainly distributed in cartilage, bone, tendon, sarcolemma and vascular wall. D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine are connected by 1,3 glycosidic bonds to form disaccharides β- 1 and 4 glycosidic bonds are connected, and the relative molecular weight is generally 25000 ~ 30000. According to the types of uronic acid in its molecular structure and the position of sulfate on aminohexose, it is mainly divided into chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A), chondroitin sulfate C (CS-C), chondroitin sulfate D (cs-d), chondroitin sulfate e (CS-E), etc.
chondroitin sulfate
        In Europe, the United States, Japan and other countries, CS is mainly used as health food or medicine for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, osteoarthritis (OA), neuroprotection, etc. In recent years, with more extensive research on the pharmacological effect and application of CS, some new effects and mechanisms have been found, and its wider application in disease prevention and treatment has also been discussed. The CS we use now is a kind of natural acidic mucopolysaccharide from animal cartilage (because of its viscosity - glycosaminoglycan (glycosaminoglycan is the representative component of animal proteoglycan and exists in the form of proteoglycan in cartilage). The types of chondroitin sulfate in different animals are different. The bones of pigs, cattle and sheep mainly contain chondroitin sulfate a, Cartilage of sharks, squid and other marine animals mainly contains chondroitin sulfate C.
       The role of sulfated cartilage in the treatment of osteoarthritis: CS can reduce the pain of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), improve joint function, reduce joint swelling and effusion, and prevent the gap narrowing of knee and hand joints. CS can alleviate the symptoms of OA (significantly reduce pain, shorten morning stiffness, increase grip strength and significantly improve function), and reduce the dosage of non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Compared with NSAIDs, CS has lower cost and better gastrointestinal tolerance in the treatment of OA -- when using NSAIDs, 2666 gastrointestinal adverse events (including 90 serious adverse events) occurred per 10000 patients, and CS was basically non-toxic and side effects. CS has been listed as a slow acting drug to change the symptoms and condition of OA and an OA disease improvement drug in clinical application. Others: such as adhesion regulation, mucosal protection, anti adhesion, promoting cell proliferation, inhibiting angiogenesis, treating corneal injury and protecting cornea, anti-virus, etc.
chondroitin sulfate
        Chondroitin sulfate is widely found in human and animal cartilage. Its medicinal preparation mainly contains two isomers of chondroitin sulfate A and chondroitin sulfate C. The content of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage of animals of different varieties and ages is different. Its pharmacological effects are as follows: chondroitin sulfate can clear the lipids and lipoproteins in the blood, clear the cholesterol of blood vessels around the heart, prevent atherosclerosis, and increase the conversion rate of lipids and fatty acids in cells. Chondroitin sulfate can effectively prevent and treat coronary heart disease. It has anti atherosclerotic and anti atherogenic plaque effects on experimental atherosclerosis model; It can increase the coronary artery division or collateral circulation of atherosclerosis, and accelerate the healing, regeneration and repair of myocardial necrosis or degeneration caused by experimental coronary atherosclerosis or embolism. It can increase the biosynthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and promote cell metabolism. Low anticoagulant activity. Chondroitin sulfate has mild anticoagulant effect. Each LMG of chondroitin sulfate A is equivalent to the anticoagulant activity of 0.45u heparin. This anticoagulant activity does not depend on antithrombin III. it can exert anticoagulant activity through fibrinogen system. Chondroitin sulfate also has anti-inflammatory, accelerating wound healing and anti-tumor effects.